Merry Christmas from the Boones!

Donna Clausen Boone and Robert “Bob” Boone took writing their annual Christmas letter seriously. The couple were known for their elaborate Christmas cards and letters. Bob designed the cards and drew the illustrations while Donna wrote the accompanying text. Bob and Donna married in 1965.

Donna Claussen Boone and Robert Boone at their wedding, 1965. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boon and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Donna was a graduate of Laramie High School and the University of Wyoming, where she majored in zoology and physiology. She went on to become a pioneer in the field of physical therapy, specializing in the treatment of patients with hemophilia. Bob was a World War II veteran and aeronautical engineer. He founded an advertising and public relations firm and was a musician in a community jazz band. He was also a gifted artist.

In 1966, the Boone’s first Christmas letter started off typically enough. It was a newsy one-page summary of the highlights of their year. They reported on harvesting grapefruit and avocados from their Pasadena, California, garden and on their vacation travels across the Southwest and Rocky Mountains with their miniature Schnauzer, Degen. And they bought their first classic car, a fire engine red 1957 Thunderbird. It was the beginning of their hobby as vintage car aficionados.

First page of Donna Claussen Boone and Robert Boone’s Christmas letter, 1966. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boon and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

By 1967, their letter had evolved into an 8-page travelogue, complete with Bob’s illustrations. Donna had been invited to speak at the World Congress for Physical Therapy, that was held in Melbourne, Australia. Bob and Donna relished the opportunity to explore Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, and Hawaii. Recipients of their Christmas letter were able to travel vicariously with the couple as they took sixteen different aircraft and eight different airlines zigzagging around the South Pacific. Donna wrote of the trip, it was “30 days of the most fabulous travel experience of our lives…Somewhere in Australia we made the resolve that every three years or so, we’ll plan a major trip to a foreign county, and if it’s possible, we’ll go!”

First page of Donna and Bob Boone’s Christmas letter, 1967. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boon and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

By 1970, Bob and Donna’s plan to travel every three years was realized. And their Christmas card that year offered up 20 pages of a “Holiday Sketchbook – Three Wonderful Months in Europe!” Once again Donna was invited to speak at the World Congress for Physical Therapy, this time held in Amsterdam. The couple capitalized on the trip and extended their visit, spending time in more than 30 European cities and capitals from London and Paris to Amsterdam and Oslo. Bob’s sketches became even more elaborate.

Pages 6 and 7 from Donna and Bob Boone’s Christmas card, 1970. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boon and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

In 1973, Bob and Donna returned to Europe once again, so that Donna could lecture at a hemophilia conference in Heidelberg and the Blood Transfusion Center of Hungary. As was their habit, the couple had a year rich with new experiences, including wine tasting in Bordeaux and sipping Tokaji in Budapest. Then, in 1976, Bob’s sketches took an interdenominational turn. Their card that year highlighted symbols of faith from some of the world’s best-known religions.

Donna and Bob Boone’s Christmas card, with Bob’s illustrations of world religions, 1976. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boone and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

The Boone’s 1979 Christmas card featured what was perhaps Bob’s most elaborate and detailed drawing yet, of the Washington Cathedral. Donna referenced their frequent travels to Washington, D.C., and noted that, when finished, the Cathedral would be the sixth largest in the world. Their card wished their friends and family “moments of tranquility as you pursue your daily life. And may the Washington Cathedral serve as a beacon of hope for world peace and understanding.” Bob shared his Christmas card with Cathedral administrators, who remarked both on his excellent calligraphy and his amazing drawing.

Donna and Bob Boone’s Christmas card, with Bob’s drawing of the Washington Cathedral in Washington, D.C., 1979. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boone and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Over the years, Donna and Bob’s Christmas cards reflected both their travels and events of the day. In 1984, swept up in the fervor of the festivities, Bob drew a tribute to the Olympics, which were held in Los Angeles. In 1988, they visited Madrid, Spain so that Donna could participate in the World Federation of Hemophilia. Their card read “Feliz Navidad de Espana,” with a beautifully detailed drawing of the Royal Monastery of El Escorial – the most important architectural monument of the Spanish Renaissance.

In 1997, the couple moved from Pasadena to a new home on California’s Central Coast. Bob had been taking watercolor classes for several years, and for their 1998 card, he used his new skills to create a colorful drawing of their local Episcopal church in Lompoc.

Donna and Bob Boone’s Christmas card, with Bob’s watercolor illustration of St. Mary’s Episcopal Church in Lompoc, California, 1998. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boone and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

By 1999, Bob and Donna had adapted with the times and were including color photos in their Christmas cards, annotated with Bob’s familiar calligraphy. In 2001, the Boone’s 34th home-made Christmas card was a departure Bob’s usual drawings. Reflecting on the shock of the terrorist attacks, Donna wrote “September 11, 2001, will go down in history with sharply etched memories that will remain with us forever. Our lives have been changed by the shocking realization that we are vulnerable to unseen evil existing within our borders. The challenge is to cherish and protect freedom, liberty, and justice.”

In 2004, Bob and Donna moved to Fort Collins, Colorado and their cards became computer generated. Then, happily in 2008, Bob’s distinctive watercolors made a reappearance in their firsthand drawn card in more than a decade.

Donna and Bob Boone’s Christmas card, with Bob’s watercolor, 2008. Box 1, Donna Clausen Boone and Robert Boone papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

2011 marked the last Christmas letter from Bob and Donna together. They had both struggled with health challenges. Donna wrote, in rhyming verse:

For when I send a Christmas card that is addressed to you – It is because you’re on the list that I’m indebted to. For I am but the total of the many folks I’ve met; 
and you happen to be one of those I prefer not to forget!

Bob passed away in 2012 and Donna passed away seven years later.

Get into the Christmas spirit by viewing their collected Christmas cards in the Donna Clausen Boone and Robert Boone papers at the American Heritage Center.

Post contributed by AHC Writer Kathryn Billington.


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A Cowboy State Tour of “A Sissy in Wyoming”

Larry Goodwin was a man’s man in almost every respect – Vietnam War veteran, former rodeo cowboy, power plant operator, and aircraft mechanic. And he had the build of a linebacker. But one characteristic separated Goodwin from most other men in his hyper masculine home state of Wyoming. Amidst the big belt buckles, blue jeans, and cowboy boots, Goodwin donned frilly petticoats, peasant blouses, and colorful hair bows.

Sissy Goodwin – it takes a man to wear a skirt on a motorcycle. Photo courtesy Vickie Goodwin.

For much of his life, Goodwin was mystified by this need to dress in feminine clothing. All he knew was that it wasn’t a choice. It was essential to his mental health. Later in life, therapy sessions led him to attribute this compulsion to a turbulent childhood of physical and mental abuse by his stepfather and mother. Somehow women’s clothing created a better sense of security for him.

Sissy’s story became a family one when he married Vickie Jones in 1968. The couple settled in Douglas, Wyoming, where both were raised. Vickie knew her husband cross dressed. She had known it since he confessed it to her during their engagement. At first, he kept it private. But in 1972, severely depressed, he concluded that he must be true to himself and go public. It was a test for his relationship with Vickie and later their children. Yet his wife and kids stood by him. After all he was a “wonderful husband, a devoted father, and a loving grandfather and great grandfather” as his family described him upon his death from brain cancer on March 7, 2020.

Sissy with his grandchildren, ca. 2010. Photo courtesy Vickie Goodwin.

The anomaly of a cross-dressing man in the Cowboy State, attracted media both inside and outside of Wyoming. His story has been covered since the 1990s in news sources that include the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, and the television series Dateline.

The national coverage brought Sissy to the attention of Los Angeles playwright Gregory Hinton, producer of the national education initiative, Out West and co-founder with the AHC of “Out West in the Rockies,” a regional LGBTQ+ archive of the American West. Gregory’s forte is crafting verbatim plays, meaning that he takes participant’s spoken and written words to weave together a story, many times related to an LGBTQ+ theme. Sissy’s story was one he knew he had to tell.

With other projects in the hopper, it took Gregory until 2020 to contact the Goodwin family. He was shocked to learn of Sissy’s death and considered abandoning the project. But talking to Vickie assured him there was plenty of material for a play. His relationship with the AHC led him to request that I conduct an oral history with Vickie. 22 hours of interview time later, Gregory had more than enough to write his play.

“A Sissy in Wyoming” debuted as a playwright’s reading in October 2021 as part of Casper’s Nicolaysen Art Museum public programming for the acclaimed exhibit “Larry Sissy Goodwin: The Fabric of His Life.” The success of the debut led Gregory, Vickie, and Leslie to realize the play’s message of courage and tolerance could resonate around Wyoming. Thus, a nine city tour of the Cowboy State was born.

The exhibit featuring Sissy’s clothing and personal items was displayed at the Nic from October 2021 to March 2022. Photo courtesy the Nic.

The “Sissy” tour was conducted from September 30to October 9 beginning at the University of Wyoming and then in Cheyenne, Sheridan, Cody, Jackson, Rock Springs, Riverton, Casper, and Douglas. Funding came not only from the AHC, but from the Wyoming Humanities, the Wyoming Cultural Trust Fund, the Wyoming Arts Council, and the Wyoming Historical Society. The tour was timed to coincide with National LGBT History Month in October. Performances were free or for a nominal charge to the public at each venue. A Q&A discussion between Gregory and Vickie and audience members about the play’s themes followed each reading.

Playwright’s reading of “A Sissy in Wyoming” by Gregory Hinton at Central Wyoming College in Riverton, Wyoming, October 7, 2022. Photo courtesy Leslie Waggener.

I accompanied the play for seven of the nine stops. As I expected, the play moved audiences at every stop, to the point that Gregory typically received a standing ovation. Gregory did a wonderful job of humanizing the struggles Sissy faced as well as his love for friends, families, and humans in general as shown in his humanitarian efforts through Veterans for Peace.

Yet it was the post-performance audience discussions that were just as moving. Safe space was created for attendees to ask honest questions and to share their experiences. So many stories come to mind. A trans member of the audience declared that, inspired by the play, they planned to resume a degree in theatre. A father and his transgender child came in dresses to commemorate Sissy. Another father shared a heart-wrenching story of the suicide of his transgender child. A young person wept quietly during Gregory’s reading and later described the strain of helping a transgender partner acclimate to life in Wyoming. A retired power plant operator revealed he is gay and had his partner with him. It was gratifying to know that audience members felt safe to share their joy and pain with us. My hope is that we helped them feel accepted and valued. Vickie Goodwin said she felt Sissy was with the tour in spirit. If so, I think his was a calm and comforting presence.

Final rehearsal for University of Wyoming performance on September 30, 2022. Shown are Zachary McCulley, Gregory Hinton, and Jed Huntzinger. Shown too is one of Sissy’s favorite outfits on a mannequin behind the performers. Photo courtesy Matthew Greenberg, the play’s director.

Leslie Waggener at microphone for post-performance audience discussion at University of Wyoming, September 30, 2022. Pictured are Julio Brionez, Leslie Waggener, Vickie Goodwin, Gregory Hinton, Jed Huntzinger. Zachary McCulley, and Cecelia Aragón. An image of Sissy is projected in the background. Photo courtesy Matthew Greenberg.

The “Out West in the Rockies” initiative will continue to be a focus for the AHC in the years to come. We would love to hear from you if you are interested in contributing to the initiative with your personal papers or the records of your organization. Or if you have programming ideas. Please contact me at   

Post contributed by AHC Archivist Leslie Waggener.


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An Infamous Day

On December 8th, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the Congress of the United States with the following declaration: “Yesterday, December 7th, 1941– a date which will live in infamy — the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.” This undeclared attack on military installations in Hawaii, particularly Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field, left 2,403 American servicemembers dead, 160 aircraft destroyed, 21 vessels sunk or damaged and plunged the United States into World War II.

While the United States committed all of its tremendous resources toward first stopping and then defeating Japan and its allies, the U.S. government was also investigating the circumstances of the attack on Hawaii, and in particular how the U.S. military was caught so completely unawares.

U.S.S. Arizona after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, December 7, 1941. Photo Files, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

The presidentially appointed Roberts Commission which investigated the attack on Hawaii focused most of its attention on the two officers who were commanding U.S. forces on that tragic day, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and General Walter C. Short. Ten days after the attack, both men were removed from command and the commission later found both commanders guilty of “dereliction of duty.” Since this was a commission and not a court-martial, neither man could appeal the conclusion.

Both Kimmel and Short argued that vital information had been withheld from them by their superiors and that, had they been more fully informed, their forces would have been in a better state of readiness for the attack. Admiral Kimmel went on to present his case to the American public in his book Admiral Kimmel’s Story which was published in January of 1954.

Husband E. Kimmel, Time Magazine Cover, December 15, 1941.
(Army and Navy Club Library Trust collection)

A 1995 Pentagon study concluded that the blame for the failures of Pearl Harbor went far beyond Kimmel and Short. In response, in 1998 (30 years after Kimmel’s death, and 49 years after Short’s death) a group of senators, including current U.S. President Joe Biden, proposed a non-binding resolution to clear Kimmel and Short. One of the measure’s supporters, World War II veteran Senator Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.), called them “the two final victims of Pearl Harbor.”

The American Heritage Center proudly counts the personal papers of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel amongst its holdings. Anyone interested in the circumstances of the Japanese attack on Hawaii, or studying World War II in general, is welcome to examine the contents to learn more about this dark and bloody moment in U.S. military history.

Post contributed by AHC Assistant Director and Collections Manager Bill Hopkins.


Posted in American history, military history, Pearl Harbor Attack, Political history, Uncategorized, World War II | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Serving UW for 70 years: A Brief History of Wyoming Hall

Wyoming Hall in its final months prior to demolition. November 25, 2019, UW Photo Services image, UW Buildings & Grounds Collection, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

After World War II, the University of Wyoming experienced tremendous growth across campus. Construction projects were a response to the rapid increase in student numbers, which was heavily influenced by the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, or the G.I. Bill as it was commonly known, which provided veterans with financial assistance for educational and living expenses.

Initially, the university relied heavily on temporary housing, including butler huts, mobile trailers, and other prefabricated structures to house the students. Later, the trustees approved the expansion of Knight Hall, including the addition of a cafeteria. The focus then shifted to building a new men’s dormitory, which would be constructed at the northeast corner of campus. The new dormitory was part of a larger campus building program that was funded by the State Legislature after the War.

On March 2, 1947, the Board of Trustees approved funding for the construction of the new four-story men’s dormitory to be named Wyoming Hall. The building was designed by Porter & Bradley Architects, of Cheyenne, a firm that designed many buildings on campus. The project began in summer 1948, and a cornerstone ceremony occurred on December 5, 1949.

The view west toward the Athletic Dorm (later McWhinnie Hall) showing equipment operators continuing excavation work for Wyoming Hall, September 1948. Box 597, Folder 31, UW President’s Office Records, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

With the influx of students utilizing the G.I. Bill, the timely completion of Wyoming Hall was critical. Somewhat ironically, another war would impede progress. Architect Frederic Porter contacted the general contractor, J.P. Steele Construction Company of Laramie, writing, “The speed and rate of accomplishment has been and is seriously lagging.” Mr. Steele responded, “Beginning with the Korean War situation, we started losing men from the project, whom we have not been able to replace.”

Still, progress continued and the new building, which contained quarters for 400 single men in 200 rooms that featured bunk beds, was mostly ready for occupancy when the school year started on September 22, 1950. The upper two floors were ready, but there were many other details yet to complete, and some rooms still lacked furnishings when students began to move in. Students were temporarily housed in Hudson Dormitory, which itself was temporary.

The new 200-room Wyoming Hall, located at the intersection of Willett Drive and 15th Street, prior to the start of the 1950 school year. The UW Tennis Courts later became a parking lot. Box 1, Charles Rue Photographs, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

The first director of the new men’s dorm was Miss Janet Vicars. Problems with new buildings and maintaining order in a hall with 400 young men kept her very busy. Issues with windows breaking began to occur in the winter. It was determined that the “panes were improperly pressurized for this altitude and that the factory will assume full responsibility…” As for student behavior, the problems seemed severe enough that they made for considerable discussion at the December 12, 1952, trustees meeting. A.L. Keeney, dean of men, wrote to Hall Director Vicars to inquire about the problem of serious noise. She responded, “We naturally have many different types and temperaments among 400 fellows…There is the student who comes to college for an education and the one who comes to play.” By the late 1950s, problems in the residence hall, including “cherry bomb incidents and general rioting,” led the administration to hire a police officer to be stationed there during the night hours. One of those officers was former Laramie policeman Curt Grissom. In 1960, when a Branding Iron reporter asked him if he liked the job, he responded, “I enjoy the job. I get to see the good side of people whereas on the police force job I usually saw only their bad sides.” When asked about problematic times, he noticed an increase right before vacations. “The boys want to get home and tension mounts up.”

One of 200 rooms for 400 Wyoming Hall residents. A UW freshman beanie cap adorns the post of the bunk beds. Box 1, Charles Rue Photographs, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
The Wyoming Hall lobby, September 1950. Box 1, Charles Rue Photographs, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

In June 1965, the trustees approved the installation of a telephone in each room. Prior to that, a phone booth in the lobby could be used by students. But the use of phones in student’s private rooms would be short-lived. The more modern Washakie residence halls were completed to replace the older dormitories. Wyoming Hall served as a dormitory until the end of the 1967 school year, when the building began a multi-year transformation from dormitory to office spaces for several departments, including the Art Department, Atmospheric Science, and ROTC. In later years, the building was occupied by the Science and Mathematics Teaching Center, Human Resources, and Auxiliary Services.

The process to convert Wyoming Hall into an office building began in 1967. This sign shows the final occupants of Wyoming Hall before it was demolished. November 25, 2019, UW Photo Services photograph, UW Buildings & Grounds Collection, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Like the other former residence halls, Wyoming Hall served other purposes much longer than it served its intended function. But history has a way of repeating itself. On December 11, 2019, 70 years after its cornerstone was placed, the trustees approved the demolition of Wyoming Hall – to make space for new student housing. Demolition was completed by spring 2021, and cleanup lasted into the summer. The new student housing project completion date is in March 2025.

The view looking southeast from McWhinnie Hall of the former site of Wyoming Hall. The location is the site of a new student housing project. November 2, 2022, American Heritage Center photograph, UW Buildings and Grounds Collection.

Sources: University of Wyoming Board of Trustees Meeting Minutes; President’s Office Records, Charles Rue Photographs Collection, UW Buildings and Grounds Collection, and the Branding Iron.

Post contributed by John Waggener, University Archivist & Historian.


Posted in Built environment, Laramie, Post World War II, Uncategorized, University of Wyoming history, Wyoming history | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Thanksgiving with Ozzie and Harriet Nelson

Thanksgiving is one of the quintessentially American holidays, so it is fitting that the all-American radio and television show The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet would include scenes related to the holiday. The Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers at the American Heritage Center includes several photos and scripts from episodes with a Thanksgiving theme.

Ozzie Nelson carving a Thanksgiving turkey while wife Harriet and sons David and Ricky look on, 1956. Box 61, Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

In the 1940s and 50s, Ozzie and Harriet Nelson were one of radio and television’s favorite all-American couples. They starred in The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet which was first broadcast on CBS radio on October 8, 1944. The Nelsons had risen to fame as regulars on Red Skelton’s radio show. Ozzie was Skelton’s band leader and Harriet was the band’s lead singer. When Red Skelton was drafted into the Army early in 1944, his radio program was discontinued. Ozzie and Harriet, finding themselves out of work, decided to launch their own radio show, a family situation comedy, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. Ozzie produced, directed, and wrote many of the scripts which revolved around the family life of Ozzie and Harriet and their two boys.

The real-life Nelsons had two sons, David, born in 1936, and Ricky, born in 1940. Initially too young to perform on radio, the boys’ roles were first voiced by professional actors. Then in February 1949, the Nelson’s real sons joined the radio cast. David was 12, Ricky was 8.

A partial “Thanksgiving Dinner” script from the radio show that aired November 24, 1946, featured the Nelson’s neighbor, Emmy Lou, enticing Ozzie to eat a piece of her mincemeat pie. At the time, mincemeat would have been a Thanksgiving favorite. But instead of soaking the mincemeat in brandy as the recipe called for, Emmy Lou had substituted vodka, giving the pie an extra kick. Ozzie was headed to his mother-in-law’s house to eat a second Thanksgiving dinner. He had just finished his own family’s Thanksgiving meal when he got the phone call from Harriet’s mother saying she was expecting them to come over for turkey dinner. Ozzie reasoned, “we can’t hurt her feelings and tell her we’ve already eaten.” Furthermore, Ozzie remarked, “I eat like a horse … and this afternoon I’m afraid I’m gonna have to!”

Page of the script “Thanksgiving Dinner” from the radio show The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, November 24, 1946. Box 82, Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Just a year later, the November 23, 1947, script titled “The Spirit of Thanksgiving” offered up a humorous take on the concept of Thanksgiving sharing. That episode of The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet saw Ozzie reminding his sons that Thanksgiving is a “priceless heritage handed down to us by the Pilgrim Fathers.” Ozzie, carried away by the spirit of Thanksgiving, invites his neighbor Mr. Dunkel as a weekend guest. Ozzie says to Harriet, “It’s the least we can do for a deserving neighbor – to share the comforts of our home with a lonely man as the time for Thanksgiving approaches.” Mr. Dunkel proves to be a peculiar visitor. To Ozzie’s chagrin, Dunkel is a health food nut and a regular shopper at the Sunny Jim Health Food Store, where he purchases things like yogurt, watercress, and figs – foods that would have been exotic in 1947. In an effort to make Dunkel feel at home, Ozzie stocks up on groceries from Sunny Jim’s. Then Harriet serves up a meal of shredded seaweed, spinach juice and peanut loaf for the whole family. Ozzie isn’t too impressed with the food, but David and Ricky eat heartily. Ricky even says, “I like it better than stuff that’s good for you!” Before long Dunkel has ingratiated himself with Harriet and the boys, to Ozzie’s irritation. Ozzie conspires to get Dunkel to leave the Nelson house but is ultimately unsuccessful and the episode ends with Ozzie hosting both Dunkel and yet another neighbor for the weekend. In 1947, the show was sponsored by the International Silver Company, which used the commercial breaks to advertise “1847 Rogers Brothers Silverplate – fine silverware for the discerning homemaker.”

Page of the script “The Spirit of Thanksgiving” from the radio show The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, November 23, 1947. Box 67, Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

In 1949, a Thanksgiving theme appears once again in the Nelsons’ radio show, this time in an episode titled “The Day After Thanksgiving.” Sponsored by Heinz, makers of “fifty-seven varieties of fine food,” it kicks off with Harriet remarking “It’s time … time to remind all the ladies listening in to be sure and ask their grocers about Heinz Cream of Tomato Soup – at the new lower prices.”

After spending Thanksgiving at Harriet’s mother’s, Ozzie and his two boys are so full of turkey and trimmings that they refuse their breakfast the next morning. Harriet worries about what they might have for dinner, with no Thanksgiving leftovers to serve. Ozzie bemoans the idea of more turkey saying, “We had a wonderful Thanksgiving dinner – but after every Thanksgiving we have nothing but turkey … turkey … turkey!” Ozzie’s neighbor, Thorny, claims that Thanksgiving kicks off his favorite week of the year, with “turkey salad, turkey hash and turkey fricassee.” Facetiously, Ozzie helpfully suggests “turkey upside down cake, turkey pudding, turkey surprise, and turkey with whipped cream on it.” But as the day continues, Ozzie and the boys develop a hankering for a turkey sandwich. And Ozzie’s neighbor Emmy Lou’s recitation of her favorite turkey leftovers “cold turkey, turkey a la king, creamed turkey, turkey croquettes, turkey hash and turkey soup” only makes them hungrier and hungrier. Eventually Harriet sends David over to his grandmother’s house for Thanksgiving leftovers. The episode ends with Ozzie raiding the refrigerator for some leftover turkey.

Page of the script “The Day After Thanksgiving” from the radio show The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, November 25, 1949. Box 72, Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

With the success of the radio program in the 1940s, Ozzie Nelson was persuaded to have his family give on-screen acting a try, with the film Here Come the Nelsons which was released in February of 1952. Ozzie, Harriet, David, and Ricky played themselves on the silver screen. The film served as a pilot for what was to become one of the longest running family-oriented live action television sitcoms in American history – the televised version of The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.

In 1956, the Nelsons posed for some Thanksgiving promotional photos. The photo below shows them attired as pilgrims. Harriet is patting younger son Ricky on the back for bagging a Thanksgiving turkey with his bow and arrow, while David, armed with a blunderbuss, looks on chagrined. The sponsor of that year’s show was Eastman Kodak.

Harriet, Ricky and David Nelson posing with a Thanksgiving turkey, 1956. Box 61, Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

A total of 435 televised episodes of The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet were broadcast from October 1952 to April 1966. Add to that the 402 radio episodes that aired, it’s no surprise that the American public was fascinated by the Nelsons. Over their careers in Hollywood, the perpetually cheerful family endeared themselves to listeners and viewers. David and Ricky had literally grown up in front of radio and television audiences. Radio Life magazine had even dubbed the boys “the crown princes of radio.” Ozzie, Harriet, David, and Ricky Nelson each were honored with their own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

If you are curious about how the Nelson family spent their Thanksgivings, you can see photos and scripts from some of the television shows and radio broadcasts of The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet in the Ozzie and Harriet Nelson papers. Happy Thanksgiving from the American Heritage Center!

Post contributed by AHC Writer Kathryn Billington.


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The “Peculiar Vibrations” of the Sweetwater County Seat

Were some of Sweetwater County’s earliest records stolen from the new county seat and lost in the desert way back in the 1870s? This is a popular story around Green River, the current Sweetwater County seat. It turns out, there is some truth to the story but as is usually the case, truth is more interesting than fiction. Although Green River has been the county seat since 1874, South Pass City had the honor first. Over the course of a few years, the back-and-forth political brawling and debate over what became the contentious move of the county seat was described by a journalist in 1875 as “peculiar vibrations.”

This clip from the March 29, 1875, issue of the Laramie Daily Sun describes the fight over the Sweetwater County seat as “peculiar vibrations.”

Today, South Pass City is a popular state historic site managed by the Wyoming Department of State Parks and Cultural Resources. Just over one hundred years after its founding as a center of Wyoming’s gold mining in 1867, the town was donated to the state, and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Though this meticulously maintained site boasts more than twenty original buildings, including the impressive and recently restored Carissa Mine, it must be difficult for today’s visitors to imagine the bustling atmosphere of commerce and gold fever that once drew hundreds to this remote Wyoming town.

The town was so prosperous the year it was founded that it was declared the seat of Carter County, Dakota Territory. Later that same year, officials in South Pass City, finding themselves now in the newly formed Wyoming Territory, renamed their county Sweetwater for the river that flowed through it. At that time, Sweetwater County stretched from the Utah/Colorado border all the way to the Montana border.

However, South Pass City’s gold rush began to decline, and residents began leaving for prospects elsewhere. In 1873, the county commissioners started to discuss moving the county seat seventy miles south to Green River, which was a major town on the primary transportation route through both Wyoming and the nation: the Union Pacific Main Line or the Transcontinental Railroad. In the years leading up to the move, suffice to say some drama ensued.

The Sweetwater County Courthouse, circa 1890. In the background is Castle Rock and St. John’s Episcopal Church, Green River’s oldest church building, that still stands today. The courthouse was finished in 1876 and was built of adobe brick after a contentious transfer of the county seat from South Pass City. This image from the W.B.D. and Annette B. Gray Papers at the American Heritage Center and can be viewed here.

The rumors about the county records being stolen and even perhaps lost in the desert probably came from the back-and-forth that occurred after the decision to move the seat. County residents voted, apparently, for the seat to stay in South Pass City but the county commissioners proceeded with the move in May 1874. Disgruntled South Pass City residents didn’t let it lie and even demanded the return of the county records after they had been moved to Green River. The county commissioners held a special meeting and voted to return the records to South Pass City in October 1874. In all, the records were moved back and forth five times before finally settling in Green River by 1876 when the new adobe courthouse had been finished.

Here’s the hitch, though. Some of the treasurer’s records never materialized. The treasurer claimed they were stolen during the transfer from Green River to South Pass City. This is where the stories of missing records truly have their roots. Many years later, in a newspaper article from 1980, a man identified as Mr. Hinton told journalist Minnie Woodring that he knew the records still existed in Green River and that the reason they were never returned to the courthouse was that they would have shown evidence the treasurer was embezzling from the county. According to an article written by long-time Green River Star editor Adrian Reynolds in 1970, the treasurer blamed the missing records for his “inability to account for funds.” What an auspicious beginning that would be have been for Green River as the county seat!

The county records were again moved to Green River City in May 1875 and have remained there ever since. Of course, minus those few treasurer’s records, which shows that the truth of the matter—an early county treasurer likely embezzling from the fledgling Sweetwater County—is stranger than the tales of early records being lost somewhere in the desert due to confusion and fighting over location of the seat. Truth may not be stranger than fiction in this case, but it’s certainly curious!

Between the years 1890 and 1919, Congregationalist ministers W.B.D. and Annette Gray visited several towns in Wyoming and took several photos, including the two included here of the Sweetwater County Courthouse. Their collection at the American Heritage Center can be viewed here. The courthouse was finished in 1876 and received several additions over the years. By the 1960s, it was considered too degraded to continue to be maintained and the current midcentury modern style Sweetwater County Courthouse was completed in 1969.

This image of the Sweetwater County Courthouse was taken some time after 1890 and shows newly installed electric streetlights (which likely dates it around 1910). This photo is from the W.B.D. and Annette B. Gray Papers at the American Heritage Center and can be viewed here.

Post contributed by AHC Public History Educator Brigida “Brie” Blasi.



Reynolds, Adrian. “Sweetwater County to Mark 100th Year,” Casper Star-Tribune, March 15, 1970.

“The vibrations of the Sweetwater County seat,” Laramie Daily Sun, March 29, 1875.

Woodring, Minnie. “South Pass City lost county Seat Battle.” The Wyoming State Journal, June 30, 1980. & Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office, “South Pass City,” Accessed November 8, 2022 from,26%2C%201970.

Yates, William. “Sweetwater County Passes Fiftieth Anniversary,” Wyoming Labor Journal, September 2, 1927.

Posted in Local history, mining history, Scandals, Uncategorized, Western history, Wyoming history | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

‘Plopped Down in the Middle of That’: Indian Boarding School Life Documented in the Warm Valley Historical Project

The Warm Valley Historical Project, funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, was conducted from 1990 to 1991 in coordination with the Shoshone Episcopal Mission to interview residents about Wind River Reservation life during the early 1900s. Research material focused on turn-of-the-century reservation life, experiences during the Great Depression, boarding school life, traditional crafts and therapies, employment opportunities, ranching, farming, language, etc. Though the project focused on Eastern Shoshone perspectives and memories, interviews were also conducted with Arapaho tribal members.

Shoshone Mission School with male students, ca. 1900. On the far left is Sherman Coolidge (1862-1932), an Episcopal priest and educator who spent 26 years preaching and teaching on the Wind River Reservation. He helped found and lead the Society of American Indians, the first American Indian rights organizations run by and for American Indians.
John Roberts papers, Box 3, Folder 3, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Eva Enos (1915-2003) was interviewed in 1991. She talked mainly of the government schools, or boarding schools. At six years of age, Enos began attending the Shoshone-Episcopal Mission School for Shoshone Girls, which had been built from 1889 to 1890 on the reservation under the direction of Reverend John Roberts, an Episcopal priest. Previously only a boy’s school existed. The girl’s school was made possible when Shoshone Chief Washakie made a personal gift of 160 acres as a school site, with the idea that all his people should receive an education so that they would be prepared to live within the quickly encroaching white society.

In her interview, Eva said that they “took ‘em from home when they were about six” and that they “stayed there all from one school year,” from September to May, and returned home for the summer and for the holiday season. Enos remembered living in “cottages” with fifteen other girls, the boys living the same way, and that the older students had to look after the younger students, even with housemothers around. The housemothers, and all the other teachers and staff, were white, all of whom were strangers to the children. The children were expected to get up, make their beds, bathe, etc. mostly on their own.

Shoshone Mission School with female students, ca. 1900. Reverend John Roberts is shown on the far right with two of his five children. John Roberts papers, Box 3, Folder 3, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Enos explained that classes were Monday through Friday in the morning and afternoon on topics such as history, geography, and math. The girls also learned how to sew and cook while the boys were taught woodworking, metal work, and farming. Sundays were spent largely at church with services twice a day. She remembers that on Sunday afternoons between services, the older girls would do beadwork – belts, buckskins, etc. – with materials provided by the school.

Nearly six years was spent at the mission school before Enos and other students were sent to Rapid City Indian School, located in South Dakota. It was a particularly strict off-reservation school, 28 of which were found throughout the United States. The main purpose of these schools was to compel mastery of English and to assimilate American Indian children into white society. Enos recalls that the students were kept on strict time schedules, regimented like the military, which was a huge change from freedom of life at home. She remembers having to refamiliarize herself as she navigated between school and reservation life. Headlice was a big problem, she explains, especially after students had returned to the reservation. They had to get checked every time they returned to school from their summer break. Eva also remembers the painful separation from her brothers while at school as boys were segregated to their own dormitories, dining halls, and classrooms.

Dormitory at the Rapid City Indian School. This setting would have been wholly unlike what the children were accustomed to at home. Photo courtesy the South Dakota State Historical Society.

Eva explained that many students tried to run away and return to the reservation or just away from the schools, but that an Indian cop or sheriff would bring them back or their parents would do so if they made it home. Indeed, according to Scott Riner, author of the 2014 book The Rapid City Indian School, 1898–1933, not only did the harsh regimen drive students away but so did hunger from measly meals that lacked nutrition or variety.

Yet, Enos found life at the South Dakota school freer than the mission school nearer her home in Wyoming. The Rapid City school had town days when students with money could go into town to shop. Eva was able to buy makeup. She also remembers school dances, particularly one at which she tried for the first time a popular dance step of the mid-1920s called the “Charleston.” Enos actually grew to like the school, which she attended for nearly four years before it was closed in 1933. Students were then sent back to school at Wind River.

From 1929, the girls’ Rapid City basketball team are in the top two rows. This photo was taken while Eva Enos attended the school, although it’s not known if she is pictured. Photo courtesy the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.

Eva Enos was just one of many former students and American Indians who contributed to the Warm Valley Historical Project. Other interviewees also offered their memories of school life. Also discussed were traders who visited the reservation, the dwindling of the Arapaho language, the Great Depression, and a variety of other subjects relating to their lives. The most prevalent topic, however, was the schools. Whether it was the mission schools, the Rapid City Indian School, or other schools, all the interviewees had something to say about their experiences. The collection contains an exhibit catalog titled From Trout Creek to Gravy High: The Boarding School Experience at Wind River. The complete guide to the collection can be found at

Post contributed by AHC Archives Intern Brittany Heye.


Posted in American Indian history, Arapaho, Cultural assimilation, Eastern Shoshone, Indigenous Peoples, Uncategorized, women's history, Wyoming history | Tagged , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Meet Grande Dame Guignol at the American Heritage Center

This Halloween, we consider the sub-genre of horror films referred to as “Grande Dame Guignol,” also known as “Hagsploitation,” “Psycho-biddy,” or “Hag Horror,” and three films in that sub-genre that are represented in three of our collections.

Films of this type feature “a formerly-glamorous older woman who has become mentally unbalanced and terrorizes those around her.” Author Caroline Young in her book Crazy Ladies: The Story of Hag Horror notes that the films cast “an aging movie star as the monster, or victim, who lives in a creepy home with a creaking staircase that offers an easy metaphor for her descent into madness, with her basement or attic the womb-like space that holds her darkest secrets.” Such films include Dead Ringer (1964), Lady in a Cage (1964), Die! Die! My Darling! (1965), The Nanny (1965), What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice? (1969), What’s the Matter with Helen? (1971), and Whoever Slew Auntie Roo? (1971).

Two stars who appeared in several of these films were Bette Davis and Joan Crawford, and they both starred in what is considered to be the first film in the sub-genre, What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? (1962). Directed by Robert Aldrich and based on a novel by Henry Farrell, the film deals with a former child star, Baby Jane Hudson (Davis), who torments her paraplegic sister, Blanche Hudson (Crawford). 

A follow-up movie, Hush…Hush, Sweet Charlotte (1964), was also directed by Aldrich and based on a short story by Farrell. As depicted in the recent TV series Feud about the decades-long rivalry between Davis and Crawford, both actors were to star in “Charlotte,” but Crawford left the production and was replaced by Olivia de Havilland.

The American Heritage Center has the papers of Frank DeVol, a prolific composer of film and television, who scored seventeen films for director Aldrich, including both “Baby Jane” and “Charlotte.” His scores for those films are included his papers. 

The AHC also has the papers of Forrest J. Ackerman, the editor of the fanzine Famous Monsters of Filmland, which include a poster for “Charlotte.”

A theatrical poster promoting Hush…Hush, Sweet Charlotte (1965). Box 132, Forrest J. Ackerman papers, Collection No. 2358, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Another prominent “Hagsploitation” film is Strait-Jacket (1964), which starred Crawford as a woman who, having killed her husband and his lover years earlier, is released from a psychiatric hospital as the film begins. Directed by William Castle and co-starring Diane Baker (who, almost thirty years later played Senator Ruth Martin in 1991’s The Silence of the Lambs) as Crawford’s daughter, the film was written by Robert Bloch, best known as the author of the 1959 novel Psycho, the basis for Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film of the same name.

The AHC has Bloch’s papers, which include several posters for Strait-Jacket, one of which is from the release of the film in Belgium. 

A theatrical poster promoting Strait-Jacket (1964). Box 384, Robert Bloch papers, Collection No. 2256, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
A theatrical poster promoting the Belgian release of Strait-Jacket (1964). Box 15, Robert Bloch papers, Collection No. 2256, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Also included in the collection are copies of two drafts of Bloch’s script for the film, as well as Call Sheets for the film and for a trailer for the film that included Crawford, Bloch, and Castle. Many of the documents in Bloch’s papers include Bloch’s handwritten annotations.

A Call Sheet from the production of Strait-Jacket. Robert Bloch’s annotation says, “Crawford always insists on air conditioning – we froze!” Box 11, Robert Bloch papers, Collection No. 2256, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
A Call Sheet from the production of a trailer for Strait-Jacket. Robert Bloch’s annotation says, “I wrote and appeared in this 5-minute special advertising trailer – with Joan Crawford and William Castle. Crawford’s and my ‘clinch’ burned up the screen with its torrid romance.” Box 11, Robert Bloch papers, Collection No. 2256, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Happy Halloween!

Post contributed by AHC Archivist Roger Simon (our resident film expert).


Posted in Actors, Holidays, Hollywood history, Horror, Motion picture actors and actresses, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Buffalo Bill Dam – Discover the Story of Wyoming’s Tallest Dam

The Buffalo Bill Dam was designed by engineer Daniel Webster Cole and built between 1905 and 1910. It was one of the first projects undertaken by the U.S. Reclamation Service (later known as the Bureau of Reclamation). The dam sits between Cody, Wyoming and Yellowstone National Park, up the south fork of the Shoshone river. It is surrounded by Rattlesnake, Spirit and Sheep Mountain.

Pipes used in the construction of Buffalo Bill Dam, November 1, 1908. Box 1, Buffalo Bill Dam Construction photograph album, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
The Buffalo Bill Dam under construction, October 13, 1908. Box 1, Buffalo Bill Dam Construction photograph album, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. William Frederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody photo file, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Shoshone Dam was the original name for the massive structure. “The name ‘Shoshone’ comes from Sosoni, a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses. Some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone “Grass House People,” based on their traditional homes made from sosoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning ‘People.’1 In 1946, the dam was renamed Buffalo Bill Dam after the famous William “Buffalo Bill” Cody, who founded the nearby town of Cody, Wyoming.

The small town of Marquette was nestled where the Buffalo Bill Reservoir now resides. The town had a dance hall, post office, barbershop, saloon, and a general store. “Buffalo Bill Cody owned a small 80-acre tract in Marquette that was separate from his sprawling T.E. Ranch on the South Fork. The government paid him $3,900 for the property, or about $86,000 in today’s dollars.”2 Most of the buildings in Marquette that could be salvaged were moved, with many becoming part of the new town of Cody.

“Buffalo Bill’s” T.E. Ranch. William Frederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody photo file, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Many of the laborers who worked to build the dam were immigrants. They faced considerable challenges. Tools at their disposal were rudimentary – shovels, buckets, 2-man hacksaws and wooden ladders. The men were dwarfed by the canyon and by the dam as it went up.

Several of the workers on the Buffalo Bill Dam, 1908. Box 1, Buffalo Bill Dam Construction photograph album, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
The Buffalo Bill Dam under construction, 1908. Note the tiny human figures suspended over the construction site. Box 1, Buffalo Bill Dam Construction photograph album, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

The deep granite canyon was sometimes flooded by unpredictable Shoshone River flows rendering work on the dam impossible. And the site lacked natural deposits of sand and gravel needed for construction, so granite boulders were placed into the cement by hand. The remote nature of the canyon meant it was hard to find and keep laborers. Workers on the dam were responsible for what may have been Wyoming’s first labor strike. They demanded and received more than three dollars a shift.

Some of the workers on the Buffalo Bill Dam, 1908. Box 1, Buffalo Bill Dam Construction photograph album, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

“The Shoshone Dam was one of the most impressive engineering feats of the early 1900s, and it later served to inspire the world-famous Hoover Dam.”3 At the time the dam was finished it was the tallest dam in the world. Standing 325 feet tall, “it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and named a National Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1973.”4

Laborers poured the last bucket of concrete on January 15, 1910, with freezing temperatures reaching 15 below zero. In all, they had poured 82,900 cubic yards of concrete. The successful construction of the dam came along with its own sacrifices. Besides the ruthless weather to contend with, working conditions were extremely dangerous – workers were often suspended above water and on rocky cliff sides. Sadly, seven workers died during the construction of the dam.

The Buffalo Bill Dam, 1908. Box 1, Buffalo Bill Dam Construction photograph album, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Once complete, the dam made it possible to irrigate the Bighorn Basin, turning it from a desert sagebrush landscape to productive agricultural land. This was crucial for the livelihood of the people calling the surrounding areas home. The dam also played a significant role during World War II by supporting more fertile farmland for the Japanese American internees in the Heart Mountain Relocation Center. “At its peak, the Heart Mountain Relocation Center housed 10,767 people, many of whom worked on sections of the canal system originally slated for contract work, but which now supplied water to irrigate fields of the internees. Internees succeeded in growing a cornucopia of vegetables including green beans, peas, carrots, spinach, beets, corn, tomatoes, and potatoes, as well as barley and wheat.”5

Today, the dam irrigates more than 93,000 acres. The farms in the surrounding area still grow beans, alfalfa, oats, barley, and sugar beets, providing job opportunities for the tightly knit communities.  On the west side of the dam, you will find Buffalo Bill State Park and a reservoir where locals and tourists can camp, cliff jump, hike, fish, and boat.

This blog post is based on a Virmuze virtual exhibit curated by American Heritage Center archives aide Amanda Wells.

Post contributed by AHC Writer Kathryn Billington.


[1] Loether, Christopher. “Shoshones.” Encyclopedia of the Great Plains accessed 21 May 2020. 

[2] Prevost, Ruffin. “Dam doomed tiny town of Marquette.” Billings Gazette, 15 November 2015. 

[3] Margaraci, Kim. “Most People Don’t Know the Tragic History of Wyoming’s Most Famous Dam.” Only In Your State, 26 September 2018. 

[4] The National Park Service. “Buffalo Bill Dam, Wyoming.” WyoHistory, 8 November 2014. 

[5] Ibid.

Posted in Agricultural history, Construction, Heart Mountain Relocation Center, Immigration, Irrigation, Shoshone Dam, Uncategorized, water resources, Wyoming history | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

How the Library of a 19th Century Club for Elites Ended Up at the University of Wyoming

In the Toppan Rare Books Library, there are several sub-collections of books. These sub-collections reflect where the Rare Books Library acquired the books, whether it was by donation, a transfer from a different part of the University of Wyoming, or purchase. One such unique subset of books is the Denver Club Collection, which is made up of a portion of books acquired from the Denver Club in the 1950s.

The Denver Club was a social club founded July 29, 1880, by prominent and wealthy male Denver citizens. The Denver Club followed in the steps of other social clubs such as the Cheyenne Club in Cheyenne, Wyoming, founded that same year. These clubs were to be spaces for the prominent elite to gather for business, leisure, or other purposes, with a main attraction being the connections one might make there. The clubs were purposely exclusive; the membership initially was limited to (white) men and in 1885 the initial membership fee was $100 with $80 in dues annually.

After meeting in a hotel in downtown Denver for several years, the Denver Club had a clubhouse built in 1888 at the corner of 17th and Glenarm St. The clubhouse featured luxurious accommodations, such as a dining room, private rooms for club members to reserve for meetings, a billiards hall, and a library for members’ use. The Denver Club library was an ornately furnished room clearly designed to evoke a refined appearance and feeling. The library collection held a variety of books including the works of Thomas Jefferson and Woodrow Wilson, as well as a wide selection of English literature in single-bound editions and volumes. The collection of books in the Denver Club Library likely reflects the tastes and interests of its members, as well as how the members might have liked their tastes and interests to be perceived.

The Denver Club building constructed in 1888. Courtesy Denver Public Library, call number X-25092.
The Denver Club’s library. Courtesy Denver Public Library, call number WHJ-10371.

In the 1950s, the Denver Club believed they needed new accommodations. The old clubhouse was torn down and construction began on one of Denver’s first skyscrapers, in which the Denver Club would occupy the top few floors. As part of this transition, furnishings and other items from the old building were sold and auctioned, including the collection of the club library. A Laramie Republican and Boomerang article dated July 21, 1952, notes that the University of Wyoming purchased the Denver Club library of 6000 books for a “very reasonable price” as well as the display shelves and catalog index. It took two trucks to bring the collection from Denver to Laramie.

Author’s photograph of Denver Club on American Heritage Center shelving.

The new DC Building still stands on the corner of 17th and Glenarm in Denver, and a selection of the books of the old Denver Club library are now housed in the Toppan Rare Books Library at the American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming, where you can view any of the books that were once in the exclusive club library.

Post contributed by Toppan Rare Books Library Assistant Marcus Holscher.


Sources used:

Atherton, Lewis. The Cattle Kings. Indiana University Press, 1961.

Whitacre, Christine. The Denver Club: 1880-1995. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., and The Denver Club. 1998.

Posted in Authors and literature, Book history, Toppan Rare Books Library, Uncategorized, University of Wyoming history | Tagged , , | Leave a comment